In a UTxO-based blockchain, a transaction is a binding between inputs and outputs.

                  input #1  >---*         *---> output #1
                                \        /
                  input #2  >---*--------*
                                /        \
                  input #3  >---*         *---> output #2

In a standard payment, outputs are a combination of:

  • A value
  • A reference (a.k.a address, a “proof” of ownership telling who owns the output).
                input #1  >---*         *---> (123, DdzFFzCqr...)
                              \        /
                input #2  >---*--------*
                              /        \
                input #3  >---*         *---> (456, hswdEoQCp...)

About address encoding

We usually represent addresses as encoded text strings. An address has a structure and a binary representation that is defined by the underlying blockchain. Yet, since they are often used in user-facing interfaces, addresses are usually encoded in a human-friendly format to be easily shared between users.

An address does not uniquely identify an output. As a matter of fact, multiple transactions could send funds to a same output address! We can however uniquely identify an output by:

  • Its host transaction id
  • Its index within that transaction

This combination is also called an input. Said differently, inputs are outputs of previous transactions.

                 *---------------- tx#42 ----------------------*
                 |                                             |
 (tx#14, ix#2) >-----------------*       *--> (123, DdzFFqr...)--- (tx#42, ix#0)
                 |               \      /                      |
 (tx#41, ix#0) >-----------------*-----*                       |
                 |               /      \                      |
 (tx#04, ix#0) >----------------*        *--> (456, hswdQCp...)--- (tx#42, ix#1)
                 |                                             |

Therefore, new transactions spend outputs of previous transactions, and produce new outputs that can be consumed by future transactions. An unspent transaction output (i.e. not used as an input of any transaction) is called a UTxO (as in Unspent Tx Output) and represents an amount of money owned by a participant.


Where does the money come from? How do I make the first transaction?

When bootstrapping a blockchain, some initial funds can be distributed among an initial set of stakeholders. This is usually the result of an Initial Coin Offering or, an agreement between multiple parties. In practice it means that, the genesis block of a blockchain may already contain some UTxOs belonging to various stakeholders.

Beside, core nodes running the protocol and producing blocks are allowed to insert in every block minted (resp. mined) called a coinbase transaction. This transaction has no inputs but follows specific rules fixed by the protocol and is used as an incentive to encourage participants to engage in the protocol.

What is the difference between an address and a public key?

In a very simple system that would only support payment transactions, public key could be substituted for addresses. In practice, addresses are meant to hold some extra pieces of information that are useful for other aspects of the protocol. For instance, in Cardano in the Shelley era, addresses may also contain:

  • A network discriminant tag, to distinguish addresses between a testNet and the MainNet and avoid unfortunate mistakes.

  • A stake reference to take part in delegation.

Addresses may also be used to trigger smart contracts, in which case, they’ll refer to a particular script rather than a public key.

In a nutshell, a public key is a piece of information that enables a stakeholder to prove one owns a particular UTxO. Whereas an address is a data-structure which contain various pieces of information, for example, a (reference to a) public key.

What are Cardano addresses made of?


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