# Jormungandr User Guide

Welcome to the Jormungandr User Guide.

Jormungandr is a node implementation, written in rust, with the initial aim to support the Ouroboros type of consensus protocol.

A node is a participant of a blockchain network, continuously making, sending, receiving, and validating blocks. Each node is responsible to make sure that all the rules of the protocol are followed.

## Mythology

Jörmungandr refers to the Midgard Serpent in Norse mythology. It is a hint to Ouroboros, the Ancient Egyptian serpent, who eat its own tail, as well as the IOHK paper on proof of stake.

# General Concepts

This chapter covers the general concepts of the blockchain, and their application in the node, and is followed by the node organisation and the user interaction with it.

# Blockchain concepts

## Time

Slots represent the basic unit of time in the blockchain, and at each slot a block could be present.

Consecutive slots are grouped into epochs, which have updatable size defined by the protocol.

## Fragments

Fragments are part of the blockchain data that represent all the possible events related to the blockchain health (e.g. update to the protocol), but also and mainly the general recording of information like transactions and certificates.

## Blocks

Blocks represent the spine of the blockchain, safely and securely linking blocks in a chain, whilst grouping valid fragments together.

Blocks are composed of 2 parts:

• The content

The header link the content with the blocks securely together, while the content is effectively a sequence of fragments.

## Blockchain

The blockchain is the general set of rules and the blocks that are periodically created. Some of the rules and settings, can be changed dynamically in the system by updates, while some other are hardcoded in the genesis block (first block of the blockchain).

    +-------+      +-------+
|Genesis+<-----+Block 1+<--- ....
+---+---+      +---+---+
|              |
+---v---+      +---v---+
|Genesis|      |Block 1|
|Content|      |Content|
+-------+      +-------+


## Consensus

The node currently support the following consensus protocol:

• Ouroboros BFT (OBFT)
• Ouroboros Genesis-Praos

Ouroboros BFT is a simple Byzantine Fault Tolerant (BFT) protocol where the block makers is a known list of leaders that successively create a block and broadcast it on the network.

Ouroboros Genesis Praos is a proof of stake (PoS) protocol where the block maker is made of a lottery where each stake pool has a chance proportional to their stake to be elected to create a block. Each lottery draw is private to each stake pool, so that the overall network doesn't know in advance who can or cannot create blocks.

In Genesis-Praos slot time duration is constant, however the frequency of creating blocks is not stable, since the creation of blocks is a probability that is linked to the stake and consensus_genesis_praos_active_slot_coeff.

Note: In Genesis-Praos, if there is no stake in the system, no blocks will be created anymore starting with the next epoch.

The leadership represent in abstract term, who are the overall leaders of the system and allow each individual node to check that specific blocks are lawfully created in the system.

The leadership is re-evaluated at each new epoch and is constant for the duration of an epoch.

Leader are an abstraction related to the specific actor that have the ability to create block; In OBFT mode, the leader just the owner of a cryptographic key, whereas in Genesis-Praos mode, the leader is a stake pool.

## Transaction

Transaction forms the cornerstone of the blockchain, and is one type of fragment and also the most frequent one.

Transaction is composed of inputs and outputs; On one side, the inputs represent coins being spent, and on the other side the outputs represent coins being received.

    Inputs         Alice (80$) Bob (20$)
\             /
\           /
-----------
B - Account with 0$=> Account B has no stake  The account might have a bigger stake than what it actually contains, since it could also have associated UTXOs, and this case is covered in the next section. ## Stake in the UTXO Model UTXO are represented by two kind of addresses: • single address: those type of address have no stake associated • group address: those types of address have an account associated which receive the stake power of the UTXOs value For example with the following utxos:  UTXO1 60$ (single address) => has stake of 0

UTXO2 50$(group address A) \ ->- A - Account with 10$ => Account A has stake of 100
UTXO3 40$(group address A) / UTXO4 20$ (group address B) -->- B - Account with 5$=> Account B has stake of 25  ## Stake pool Stake pool are the trusted block creators in the genesis-praos system. A pool is declared on the network explicitely by its owners and contains, metadata and cryptographic material. Stake pool has no stake power on their own, but participants in the network delegate their stake to a pool for running the operation. ## Stake Delegation Stake can and need to be delegated to stake pool in the system. They can change over time with a publication of a new delegation certificate. Delegation certificate are a simple declaration statement in the form of:  Account 'A' delegate to Stake Pool 'Z'  Effectively it assign the stake in the account and its associated UTXO stake to the pool it delegates to until another delegation certificate is made. # Node organisation ## Secure Enclave The secure enclave is the component containing the secret cryptographic material, and offering safe and secret high level interfaces to the rest of the node. ## Network The node's network is 3 components: • Intercommunication API (GRPC) • Public client API (REST) • Control client API (REST) More detailed information here ### Intercommunication API (GRPC) This interface is a binary, efficient interface using the protobuf format and GRPC standard. The protobuf files of types and interfaces are available in the source code. The interface is responsible to communicate with other node in the network: • block sending and receiving • fragments (transaction, certificates) broadcast • peer2peer gossip ### Public API REST This interface is for simple queries for clients like: • Wallet Client & Middleware • Analytics & Debugging tools • Explorer it's recommended for this interface to not be opened to the public. TODO: Add a high level overview of what it does ### Control API REST This interface is not finished, but is a restricted interface with ACL, to be able to do maintenance tasks on the process: • Shutdown • Load/Retire cryptographic material TODO: Detail the ACL/Security measure Jörmungandr network capabilities are split into: 1. the REST API, used for informational queries or control of the node; 2. the gRPC API for blockchain protocol exchange and participation; Here we will only review the gRPC API as the REST API is described in another chapter: go to the REST documentation # The protocol The protocol is based on gRPC that combines commonly used protocols like HTTP/2 and RPC. More precisely, Jörmungandr utilises. This choice was made because gRPC is already widely supported around the world because of it's uitilization of standard protocols HTTP/2 which makes it much easier for Proxies and Firewalls to recognise the protocol and permit the traffic. ## Type of queries The protocol allows you to send multiple types of messages between nodes: • sync block to remote peer's Last Block (tip). • propose new fragments (new transactions, certificates, ...): this is for the fragment propagation. • propose new blocks: for block propagation. There are other commands that optimise the communication and synchronisation between nodes that will be documented here in the future. Another type of messages is the Gossip message. These gossip messages allow Nodes to exchange information (gossips) about other nodes on the network, allowing for peer discovery. ## Peer to peer The peer 2 peer connections are established utilising multiple components: • A multilayered topology (e.g. Poldercast); • Gossiping for node discoverability; • Subscription mechanism for event propagation; • Security and countermeasures: (such as Topology Policy for scoring and/or blacklisting nodes); ### Multilayered topology As described in the Poldercast paper, our network topology is built on multiple layers that allow for granular control of it's behavior. In practice this means a node will have different groups of nodes that it connects to based on different algorithms, each of these groups are a subset of the whole known list of nodes. In short we have: • The rings layer selects a predecessor(s) and a successor(s) for each topic (Fragment or Blocks); • The Vicinity layer will select nodes that have similar interests; • The Cyclon layer, will select nodes randomly. However, we keep the option open to remove some of these layers or to add new ones, such as: • A layer to allow privilege connections between stake pools; • A layer for the user's whitelist, a list of nodes the users considered trustworthy and that we could use to check in the current state of the network and verify the user's node is not within a long running fork; ### Gossiping Gossiping is the process used for peer discovery. It allows two things: 1. For any nodes to advertise themselves as discoverable; 2. To discover new nodes via exchanging a list of nodes (gossips); The gossips are selected by the different layers of the multilayered topology. For the Poldercast modules, the gossips are selected just as in the paper. Additional modules may select new nodes in the gossip list or may decide to not add any new information. ### Subscription mechanism Based on the multilayered topology, the node will open multiplexed and bi-directional connections (thanks to industry standard gRPC, this comes for free). These bi-directional connections are used to propagate events such as: • Gossiping events, when 2 nodes exchange gossips for peer discovery; • Fragment events, when a node wants to propagate a new fragment to other nodes; • Block events, when a node wants to propagate a new block creation event ### Security and countermeasures In order to facilitate the handling of unreachable nodes or of misbehaving ones we have built a node policy tooling. This is constructed via 2 mechanisms: collecting connectivity statuses and blockchain status for each node. The policy can then be tuned over the collected data to apply some parameters when connecting to a given node, as well as banning nodes from our topology. For each node, the following data is collected: Connection statuses: • The failed connection attempts and when it happened; • Latency • Last message used per topic item (last time a fragment has been received from that node, last time a block has been received from that node…) Blockchain level info: • Faults (e.g. trying to send an invalid block) • Contributions in the network • Their blockchain status (e.g. tips) ### Policy The p2p policy provides some more fine control on how to handle nodes flagged as not behaving as expected (see the list of data collected). It currently works as a 3 levels: possible contact, quarantined, forgotten. Each new gossip will create a new entry in the list of possible contact. Then the policy, based on the logged data associated to this node, may decide to put this node in quarantine for a certain amount of time. At the end of this time the node may decide one of the following: keep it quarantined, make it a possible contact again or forget about it. The changes from one level to another is best effort only. Applying the policy may be costly so the node applies the policy only on the node it is interested about (a gossip update or when reporting an issue against a node). This guarantees that the node does not spend too much time policing its database. And it also makes sure that only the nodes of interest are up to date. However it is possible for the node to choose, at a convenient time, to policy the whole p2p database. This is not enforced by the protocol. DispositionDescription availableNode is available for the p2p topology for view selection and gossips. quarantinedNode is not available for the p2p topology for view selection or gossips. After a certain amount of time, if the node is still being gossiped about, it will be moved to available. forgottenA node forgotten is simply removed from the whole p2p database. However, if the node is still being gossiped about it will be added back as available and the process will start again. # Quickstart The rust node comes with tools and help in order to quickly start a node and connect to the blockchain. It is compatible with most platforms and it is pre-packaged for some of them. Here we will see how to install jormungandr and its helper jcli and how to connect quickly to a given blockchain. There are three posible ways you can start jormungandr. ## As a passive node in an existing network As described here. The passive Node is the most common type of Node on the network. It can be used to download the blocks and broadcast transactions to peers, but it doesn't have cryptographic materials or any mean to create blocks. This type of nodes are mostly used for wallets, explorers or relays. ## As a node generating blocks in an existing network The network could be running either bft or genesis consensus. In the former case the node must have the private key of a registered as a slot leader, while for the latter the private keys of a registered stake pool are needed. More information here ## Creating your own network This is similar to the previous case, but configuring a genesis file is needed. Consult the Advanced section for more information on this procedure. The software is bundled with 2 different command line software: 1. jormungandr: the node; 2. jcli: Jormungandr Command Line Interface, the helpers and primitives to run and interact with the node. # Installation ## From a release This is the recommended method. Releases are all available here. ## From source Jormungandr's code source is available on github. Follow the instructions to build the software from sources. # Help and auto completion All commands come with usage help with the option --help or -h. For jcli, it is possible to generate the auto completion with: jcli auto-completion bash${HOME}/.bash_completion.d


Supported shells are: bash, fish, zsh, powershell and elvish.

Note: Make sure ${HOME}/.bash_completion.d directory previously exists on your HD. In order to use auto completion you still need to: source${HOME}/.bash_completion.d/jcli.bash


You can also put it in your ${HOME}/.bashrc. In order to start the node, you first need to gather the blockchain information you need to connect to. 1. the hash of the genesis block of the blockchain, this will be the source of truth of the blockchain. It is 64 hexadecimal characters. 2. the trusted peers identifiers and access points. These information are essentials to start your node in a secure way. The genesis block is the first block of the blockchain. It contains the static parameters of the blockchain as well as the initial funds. Your node will utilise the Hash to retrieve it from the other peers. It will also allows the Node to verify the integrity of the downloaded genesis block. The trusted peers are the nodes in the public network that your Node will trust in order to initialise the Peer To Peer network. # The node configuration Your node configuration file may look like the following: Note This config shouldn't work as it is, the ip address and port for the trusted peer should be those of an already running node. Also, the public_address ('u.x.v.t') should be a valid address (you can use an internal one, eg: 127.0.0.1). Furthermore, you need to have permission to write in the path specified by the storage config. storage: "/mnt/cardano/storage" rest: listen: "127.0.0.1:8443" p2p: trusted_peers: - address: "/ip4/104.24.28.11/tcp/8299" id: ad24537cb009bedaebae3d247fecee9e14c57fe942e9bb0d  Description of the fields: • storage: (optional) Path to the storage. If omitted, the blockchain is stored in memory only. • log: (optional) Logging configuration: • level: log messages minimum severity. If not configured anywhere, defaults to "info". Possible values: "off", "critical", "error", "warn", "info", "debug", "trace". • format: Log output format, plain or json. • output: Log output destination. Possible values are: • stdout: standard output • stderr: standard error • syslog: syslog (only available on Unix systems) • syslogudp: remote syslog (only available on Unix systems) • host: address and port of a syslog server • hostname: hostname to attach to syslog messages • journald: journald service (only available on Linux with systemd, (if jormungandr is built with the systemd feature) • gelf: Configuration fields for GELF (Graylog) network logging protocol (if jormungandr is built with the gelf feature): • backend: hostname:port of a GELF server • log_id: identifier of the source of the log, for the host field in the messages. • file: path to the log file. • rest: (optional) Configuration of the REST endpoint. • listen: address:port to listen for requests • tls: (optional) enables TLS and disables plain HTTP if provided • cert_file: path to server X.509 certificate chain file, must be PEM-encoded and contain at least 1 item • priv_key_file: path to server private key file, must be PKCS8 with single PEM-encoded, unencrypted key • cors: (optional) CORS configuration, if not provided, CORS is disabled • allowed_origins: (optional) allowed origins, if none provided, echos request origin • max_age_secs: (optional) maximum CORS caching time in seconds, if none provided, caching is disabled • p2p: P2P network settings • trusted_peers: (optional) the list of nodes's multiaddr with their associated public_id to connect to in order to bootstrap the P2P topology (and bootstrap our local blockchain); • public_id: (optional) the node's public ID that will be used to identify this node to the network. • public_address: multiaddr string specifying address of the P2P service. This is the public address that will be distributed to other peers of the network that may find interest in participating to the blockchain dissemination with the node. • listen_address: (optional) multiaddr specifies the address the node will listen to to receive p2p connection. Can be left empty and the node will listen to whatever value was given to public_address. • topics_of_interest: The dissemination topics this node is interested to hear about: • messages: Transactions and other ledger entries. Typical setting for a non-mining node: low. For a stakepool: high; • blocks: Notifications about new blocks. Typical setting for a non-mining node: normal. For a stakepool: high. • max_connections: The maximum number of simultaneous P2P connections this node should maintain. • explorer: (optional) Explorer settings • enabled: True or false • no_blockchain_updates_warning_interval: (optional, seconds) if no new blocks were received after this period of time, the node will start sending you warnings in the logs. # Starting the node jormungandr --config config.yaml --genesis-block-hash 'abcdef987654321....'  The 'abcdef987654321....' part refers to the hash of the genesis, that should be given to you from one of the peers in the network you are connecting to. In case you have the genesis file (for example, because you are creating the network) you can get this hash with jcli. cat block-0 | jcli genesis hash  or, in case you only have the yaml file cat genesis.yaml | jcli genesis encode | jcli genesis hash  It is possible to query the node via its REST Interface. In the node configuration, you have set something like: # ... rest: listen: "127.0.0.1:8443" #...  This is the REST endpoint to talk to the node, to query blocks or send transaction. It is possible to query the node stats with the following end point: curl http://127.0.0.1:8443/api/v0/node/stats  The result may be: {"blockRecvCnt":120,"txRecvCnt":92,"uptime":245}  THE REST API IS STILL UNDER DEVELOPMENT Please note that the end points and the results may change in the future. To see the whole Node API documentation, click here # Explorer mode The node can be configured to work as a explorer. This consumes more resources, but makes it possible to query data otherwise not available. ## Configuration There is two ways of enabling the explorer api. It can either be done by passing the --enable-explorer flag on the start arguemnts or by the config file: explorer: enabled: true  #### CORS For configuring CORS the explorer API, this needs to be done on the REST section of the config, as documented here. ## API A graphql interface can be used to query the explorer data, when enabled, two endpoints are available in the REST interface: /explorer/graphql and /explorer/graphiql . The first is the one that queries are made against, for example: curl \ -X POST \ -H "Content-Type: application/json" \ --data '{'\ '"query": "{'\ ' status {'\ ' latestBlock {'\ ' chainLength'\ ' id'\ ' previousBlock {'\ ' id'\ ' }'\ ' }'\ ' }'\ '}"'\ '}' \ http://127.0.0.1:8443/explorer/graphql  While the second serves an in-browser graphql IDE that can be used to try queries interactively. # How to start a node as a leader candidate ## Gathering data Like in the passive node case, two things are needed to connect to an existing network 1. the hash of the genesis block of the blockchain, this will be the source of truth of the blockchain. It is 64 hexadecimal characters. 2. the trusted peers identifiers and access points. The node configuration could be the same as that for running a passive node. There are some differences depending if you are connecting to a network running a genesis or bft consensus protocol. ### Connecting to a genesis blockchain #### Registering a stake pool In order to be able to generate blocks in an existing genesis network, a registered stake pool is needed. #### Creating the secrets file Put the node id and private keys in a yaml file in the following way: ##### Example filename: node_secret.yaml genesis: sig_key: Content of stake_pool_kes.prv file vrf_key: Content of stake_pool_vrf.prv file node_id: Content of stake_pool.id file  #### Starting the node jormungandr --genesis-block-hash asdf1234... --config config.yaml --secret node_secret.yaml  The 'asdf1234...' part should be the actual block0 hash of the network ### Connecting to a BFT blockchain In order to generate blocks, the node should be registered as a slot leader in the network and started in the following way. ## The secret file Put secret key in a yaml file, e.g. node_secret.yaml as follows: bft: signing_key: ed25519_sk1kppercsk06k03yk4qgea....  where signing_key is a private key associated to the public id of a slot leader. ### Starting the node jormungandr --genesis-block asdf1234... --config node.config --secret node_secret.yaml  The 'asdf1234...' part should be the actual block0 hash of the network This chapter covers the node documentation, necessary to have a working system. It covers the network, logging and storage parameters. ## Node Configuration This is an common example of a Jormungandr node configuration file typically named node-config.yaml, however your's will vary depending on your needs. Addtionally, this configuration has been tested on Jormungandr 0.7.1 and may change with newer versions. It's important to keep in mind that the trusted_peers portion of this configuration will be different for each Cardano blockchain network. If you're trying to connect this node to a specific network, you need to know it's genesis block hash, and it's associated list of trusted peers. Example Configuration - 1: --- log: - output: stderr level: info format: plain http_fetch_block0_service: - https://url/jormungandr-block0/raw/master/data p2p: public_address: "/ip4/X.X.X.X/tcp/Y" # This should match your public IP address (X) and port number (Y) topics_of_interest: blocks: normal #Default is normal - high for stakepool messages: low #Default is low - high for stakepool allow_private_addresses: false trusted_peers: - address: "/ip4/13.230.137.72/tcp/3000" id: e4fda5a674f0838b64cacf6d22bbae38594d7903aba2226f - address: "/ip4/13.230.48.191/tcp/3000" id: c32e4e7b9e6541ce124a4bd7a990753df4183ed65ac59e34 - address: "/ip4/18.196.168.220/tcp/3000" id: 74a9949645cdb06d0358da127e897cbb0a7b92a1d9db8e70 - address: "/ip4/3.124.132.123/tcp/3000" id: 431214988b71f3da55a342977fea1f3d8cba460d031a839c - address: "/ip4/18.184.181.30/tcp/3000" id: e9cf7b29019e30d01a658abd32403db85269fe907819949d - address: "/ip4/184.169.162.15/tcp/3000" id: acaba9c8c4d8ca68ac8bad5fe9bd3a1ae8de13816f40697c - address: "/ip4/13.56.87.134/tcp/3000" id: bcfc82c9660e28d4dcb4d1c8a390350b18d04496c2ac8474 rest: listen: 127.0.0.1:3100 storage: "./storage"  Note: The node configuration uses the YAML format. ## advanced this is not a recommended settings as it may take memory and may trigger some latency: If you want to record the reward distributions in a directory it is possible to set the environment variable: JORMUNGANDR_REWARD_DUMP_DIRECTORY=/PATH/TO/DIR/TO/WRITE/REWARD. If an error occur while dumping the reward, the node will panic with an appropriate error message. The following options are available in the log section: • level: log messages minimum severity. If not configured anywhere, defaults to "info". Possible values: "off", "critical", "error", "warn", "info", "debug", "trace". • format: log output format - plain or json. • output: log output - stdout, stderr, syslog (Unix only), or journald (Linux with systemd only, must be enabled during compilation). There are 2 different network interfaces which are covered by their respective section: rest: ... p2p: ...  ## REST interface configuration • listen: listen address • tls: (optional) enables TLS and disables plain HTTP if provided • cert_file: path to server X.509 certificate chain file, must be PEM-encoded and contain at least 1 item • priv_key_file: path to server private key file, must be PKCS8 with single PEM-encoded, unencrypted key • cors: (optional) CORS configuration, if not provided, CORS is disabled • allowed_origins: (optional) allowed origins, if none provided, echos request origin • max_age_secs: (optional) maximum CORS caching time in seconds, if none provided, caching is disabled ### Configuring TLS In order to enable TLS there must be provided certificate and private key files. #### Example generation of files for self-signed TLS Generate private key openssl genrsa -out priv.key 2048  Wrap private key in PKCS8 openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -inform PEM -outform PEM -in priv.key -out priv.pk8 -nocrypt  Generate a self-signed certificate for private key openssl req -new -key priv.key -out cert_req.csr openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in cert_req.csr -signkey priv.key -out cert.crt  Use generated files in config rest: tls: cert_file: cert.crt priv_key_file: priv.pk8  ## P2P configuration • trusted_peers: (optional) the list of nodes' multiaddr to connect to in order to bootstrap the p2p topology (and bootstrap our local blockchain) with the associated id (24 bytes in hexadecimal given by the trusted peers to allow initial connection to it). • public_address: multiaddr the address to listen from and accept connection from. This is the public address that will be distributed to other peers of the network that may find interest into participating to the blockchain dissemination with the node. Currently only TCP is supported. • public_id: (optional) This is a static identifier, 24 bytes encoded in hexadecimal. They are used to bootstrap the connection to the node if the node introduce itself as a trusted peer. Most of the user don't need to set this value and in fact we are working toward potentially removing the need for this value. • listen_address: (optional) multiaddr specifies the address the node will listen to to receive p2p connection. Can be left empty and the node will listen to whatever value was given to public_address. • topics_of_interest: (optional) the different topics we are interested to hear about: • messages: notify other peers this node is interested about Transactions typical setting for a non mining node: "low". For a stakepool: "high"; • blocks: notify other peers this node is interested about new Blocks. typical settings for a non mining node: "normal". For a stakepool: "high". • max_connections: the maximum number of P2P connections this node should maintain. If not specified, an internal limit is used by default [default: 256] • max_client_connections: the maximum number of client P2P connections this node should keep open. [default: 8] • policy: (optional) set the setting for the policy module • quarantine_duration set the time to leave a node in quarantine before allowing it back (or not) into the fold. It is recommended to leave the default value [default: 30min]. • max_unreachable_nodes_to_connect_per_event: (optional) set the maximum number of unreachable nodes to contact at a time for every new notification. Every time a new propagation event is triggered, the node will select randomly a certain amount of unreachable nodes to connect to in addition to the one selected by other p2p topology layer [default: 20] • gossip_interval: (optional) interval to start gossiping with new nodes, changing the value will affect the bandwidth. The more often the node will gossip the more bandwidth the node will need. The less often the node gossips the less good the resilience to node churn. [default: 10s] • topology_force_reset_interval: (optional) If this value is set, it will trigger a force reset of the topology layers. The default is to not do force the reset. It is recommended to let the protocol handle it. • max_bootstrap_attempts: (optional) number of times to retry bootstrapping from trusted peers. If not set, default beavior, the bootstrap process will keep retrying indefinitely, until completed successfully. If set to 0 (zero), the node will skip bootstrap all together -- even if trusted peers are defined. If the node fails to bootstrap from any of the trusted peers and the number of bootstrap retry attempts is exceeded, then the node will continue to run without completing the bootstrap process. This will allow the node to act as the first node in the p2p network (i.e. genesis node), or immediately begin gossip with the trusted peers if any are defined. ### The trusted peers The trusted peers is a concept that is not fully implemented yet. One of the key element for now is that this is the first node any node tries to connect in order to meet new nodes. Right now, as far as we know, only one of them is needed. IOHK provides a few others for redundancy. ### Setting the public_id This is needed to advertise your node as a trusted peer. If not set, the node will generate a random ID, which is fine for a regular user. You can generate a public id with openssl, for example: openssl rand -hex 24 ### topics_of_interest This is optional an optional value to set. The default is: messages: low blocks: normal  These value makes sense for most of the users that are not running stake pools or that are not even publicly reachable. However for a publicly reachable node, the recommended setting would be: messages: normal blocks: normal  and for a stake pool messages: high blocks: high  When running an active node (BFT leader or stake pool) it is interesting to be able to make choices on how to manage the pending transactions: how long to keep them, how to prioritize them etc. The mempool field in your node config file is not mandatory, by default it is set as follow: mempool: pool_max_entries: 10000 log_max_entries: 100000  • pool_max_entries: (optional, default is 10000). Set a maximum size of the mempool • log_max_entries: (optional, default is 100000). Set a maximum size of fragment logs The leadership field in your node config file is not mandatory, by default it is set as follow: leadership: logs_capacity: 1024  • logs_capacity: the maximum number of logs to keep in memory. Once the capacity is reached, older logs will be removed in order to leave more space for new ones [default: 1024] # jcli This is the node command line helper. It is mostly meant for developers and stake pool operators. It allows offline operations: • generating cryptographic materials for the wallets and stake pools; • creating addresses, transactions and certificates; • prepare a new blockchain and it allows simple interactions with the node: • query stats; • send transactions and certificates; • get raw blocks and UTxOs. # cryptographic keys There are multiple type of key for multiple use cases. typeusage Ed25519Signing algorithm for Ed25519 algorithm Ed25519Bip32Related to the HDWallet, Ed25519 Extended with chain code for derivation derivation Ed25519ExtendedRelated to Ed25519Bip32 without the chain code SumEd25519_12For stake pool, necessary for the KES Curve25519_2HashDHFor stake pool, necessary for the VRF There is a command line parameter to generate this keys: $ jcli key generate --type=Ed25519
ed25519_sk1cvac48ddf2rpk9na94nv2zqhj74j0j8a99q33gsqdvalkrz6ar9srnhvmt


and to extract the associated public key:

$echo ed25519_sk1cvac48ddf2rpk9na94nv2zqhj74j0j8a99q33gsqdvalkrz6ar9srnhvmt | jcli key to-public ed25519_pk1z2ffur59cq7t806nc9y2g64wa60pg5m6e9cmrhxz9phppaxk5d4sn8nsqg  ## Signing data Sign data with private key. Supported key formats are: ed25519, ed25519bip32, ed25519extended and sumed25519_12. jcli key sign <options> <data>  The options are • --secret-key <secret_key> - path to file with bech32-encoded secret key • -o, --output - path to file to write signature into, if no value is passed, standard output will be used - path to file with data to sign, if no value is passed, standard input will be used ## Verifying signed data Verify signed data with public key. Supported key formats are: ed25519, ed25519bip32 and sumed25519_12. jcli key verify <options> <data>  The options are • --public-key <public_key> - path to file with bech32-encoded public key • --signature - path to file with signature - path to file with data to sign, if no value is passed, standard input will be used # Address Jormungandr comes with a separate CLI to create and manipulate addresses. This is useful for creating addresses from their components in the CLI, for debugging addresses and for testing. ## Display address info To display an address and verify it is in a valid format you can utilise: $ jcli address info ta1svy0mwwm7mdwcuj308aapjw6ra4c3e6cygd0f333nvtjzxg8ahdvxlswdf0
discrimination: testing
public key: ed25519e_pk1pr7mnklkmtk8y5tel0gvnksldwywwkpzrt6vvvvmzus3jpldmtpsx9rnmx


or for example:

$jcli address \ info \ ca1qsy0mwwm7mdwcuj308aapjw6ra4c3e6cygd0f333nvtjzxg8ahdvxz8ah8dldkhvwfghn77se8dp76uguavzyxh5cccek9epryr7mkkr8n7kgx discrimination: production public key: ed25519_pk1pr7mnklkmtk8y5tel0gvnksldwywwkpzrt6vvvvmzus3jpldmtpsx9rnmx group key: ed25519_pk1pr7mnklkmtk8y5tel0gvnksldwywwkpzrt6vvvvmzus3jpldmtpsx9rnmx  ## Creating an address Each command following allows to create addresses for production and testing chains. For chains, where the discrimination is testing, you need to use the --testing flag. There's 3 types of addresses: • Single address : A simple spending key. This doesn't have any stake in the system • Grouped address : A spending key attached to an account key. The stake is automatically • Account address : An account key. The account is its own stake ### Address for UTxO You can create a single address (non-staked) using the spending public key for this address utilising the following command: $ jcli address \
single ed25519e_pk1jnlhwdgzv3c9frknyv7twsv82su26qm30yfpdmvkzyjsdgw80mfqduaean
ca1qw207ae4qfj8q4yw6v3ned6psa2r3tgrw9u3y9hdjcgj2p4pcaldyukyka8


To add the staking information and make a group address, simply add the account public key as a second parameter of the command:

$jcli address \ single \ ed25519_pk1fxvudq6j7mfxvgk986t5f3f258sdtw89v4n3kr0fm6mpe4apxl4q0vhp3k \ ed25519_pk1as03wxmy2426ceh8nurplvjmauwpwlcz7ycwj7xtl9gmx9u5gkqscc5ylx ca1q3yen35r2tmdye3zc5lfw3x992s7p4dcu4jkwxcda80tv8xh5ym74mqlzudkg42443nw08cxr7e9hmcuzals9ufsa9uvh723kvteg3vpvrcxcq  ### Address for Account To create an account address you need the account public key and run: $ jcli address \
account ed25519_pk1c4yq3hflulynn8fef0hdq92579n3c49qxljasrl9dnuvcksk84gs9sqvc2
ca1qhz5szxa8lnujwva8997a5q42nckw8z55qm7tkq0u4k03nz6zc74ze780qe


You can decide to change the address prefix, allowing you to provide more enriched data to the user. However, this prefix is not forwarded to the node, it is only for UI/UX.

$jcli address \ account \ --prefix=address_ \ ed25519_pk1yx6q8rsndawfx8hjzwntfs2h2c37v5g6edv67hmcxvrmxfjdz9wqeejchg address_1q5smgquwzdh4eyc77gf6ddxp2atz8ej3rt94nt6l0qes0vexf5g4cw68kdx  # Transaction Tooling for offline transaction creation and signing. jcli transaction  Those familiar with cardano-cli transaction builder will see resemblance in jcli transaction. There is a couple of commands that can be used to: 1. prepare a transaction: • new create a new empty transaction; • add-input • add-account • add-output 2. finalize the transaction for signing: 3. create witnesses and add the witnesses: • make-witness • add-witness 4. seal the transaction, ready to send to the blockchain 5. auth the transaction, if it contains a certificate There are also functions to help decode and display the content information of a transaction: • info displays summary of transaction being constructed • data-for-witness get the data to sign from a given transaction • fragment-id get the Fragment ID from a transaction in sealed state • to-message to get the hexadecimal encoded message, ready to send with cli rest message DEPRECATED: • id get the data to sign from a given transaction (use data-for-witness instead) ## Transaction info On every stage of building a transaction user can display its summary jcli transaction info <options>  The options are: • --prefix <address-prefix> - set the address prefix to use when displaying the addresses (default: ca) • --fee-certificate <certificate> - fee per certificate (default: 0) • --fee-coefficient <coefficient> - fee per every input and output (default: 0) • --fee-constant <constant> - fee per transaction (default: 0) • --output-format <format> - Format of output data. Possible values: json, yaml. Any other value is treated as a custom format using values from output data structure. Syntax is Go text template: https://golang.org/pkg/text/template/. (default: yaml) • --output <output> - write the info in the given file or print it to the standard output • --staging <staging-file> - place where the transaction is going to be save during its staging phase. If a file is given, the transaction will be read from this file and modification will be written into this same file. If no file is given, the transaction will be read from the standard input and will be rendered in the standard output YAML printed on success --- balance: 40 # transaction balance or how much input is not spent fee: 60 # total fee for transaction input: 200 # total input of transaction inputs: # list of transaction inputs, each can be of either "utxo" or "account" kind - index: 4 # index of transaction output kind: utxo # constant value, signals that UTxO is used # hex-encoded ID of transaction txid: 543326b2739356ab6d14624a536ca696f1020498b36456b7fdfe8344c084bfcf value: 130 # value of transaction output - # hex-encoded account address account: 3fd45a64ae5a3b9c35e37114baa099b8b01285f7d74b371597af22d5ff393d9f kind: account # constant value, signals that account is used value: 70 # value taken from account num_inputs: 1 # total number of inputs of transaction num_outputs: 1 # total number of outputs of transaction num_witnesses: 1 # total number of witnesses of transaction output: 100 # total output of transaction outputs: # list of transaction outputs - # bech32-encoded address address: ca1swedukl830v26m8hl7e5dzrjp77yctuz79a68r8jl2l79qnpu3uwz0kg8az value: 100 # value sent to address # hex-encoded transaction hash, when transaction is complete, it's also its ID sign_data_hash: 26be0b8bd7e34efffb769864f00d7c4aab968760f663a7e0b3ce213c4b21651b status: sealed # transaction status, can be "balancing", "finalizing", "sealed" or "authed"  # Examples The following example focuses on using an utxo as input, the few differences when transfering from an account will be pointed out when necessary. There is also a script here to send a transaction from a faucet account to a specific address which could be used as a reference. Let's use the following utxo as input and transfer 50 lovelaces to the destination address ## Input utxo FieldValue UTXO's transaction ID55762218e5737603e6d27d36c8aacf8fcd16406e820361a8ac65c7dc663f6d1c UTXO's output index0 associated addressca1q09u0nxmnfg7af8ycuygx57p5xgzmnmgtaeer9xun7hly6mlgt3pjyknplu associated value100 ## Destination address address: ca1qvnr5pvt9e5p009strshxndrsx5etcentslp2rwj6csm8sfk24a2wlqtdj6 ## Create a staging area jcli transaction new --staging tx  ## Add input For the input, we need to reference the uxto with the UTXO's transaction ID and UTXO'S output index fields and we need to specify how much coins are there with the associated value field. ### Example - UTXO address as Input jcli transaction add-input 55762218e5737603e6d27d36c8aacf8fcd16406e820361a8ac65c7dc663f6d1c 0 100 --staging tx  ### Example - Account address as Input If the input is an account, the command is slightly different jcli transaction add-account account_address account_funds --staging tx  ## Add output For the output, we need the address we want to transfer to, and the amount. jcli transaction add-output ca1qvnr5pvt9e5p009strshxndrsx5etcentslp2rwj6csm8sfk24a2wlqtdj6 50 --staging tx  ## Add fee and change address We want to get the change in the same address that we are sending from (the associated address of the utxo). We also specify how to compute the fees. You can leave out the --fee-constant 5 --fee-coefficient 2 part if those are both 0. jcli transaction finalize ca1q09u0nxmnfg7af8ycuygx57p5xgzmnmgtaeer9xun7hly6mlgt3pjyknplu --fee-constant 5 --fee-coefficient 2 --staging tx  Now, if you run jcli transaction info --fee-constant 5 --fee-coefficient 2 --staging tx  You should see something like this --- balance: 0 fee: 11 input: 100 inputs: - index: 0 kind: utxo txid: 55762218e5737603e6d27d36c8aacf8fcd16406e820361a8ac65c7dc663f6d1c value: 100 num_inputs: 1 num_outputs: 2 num_witnesses: 0 output: 89 outputs: - address: ca1qvnr5pvt9e5p009strshxndrsx5etcentslp2rwj6csm8sfk24a2wlqtdj6 value: 50 - address: ca1q09u0nxmnfg7af8ycuygx57p5xgzmnmgtaeer9xun7hly6mlgt3pjyknplu value: 39 sign_data_hash: 0df39a87d3f18a188b40ba8c203f85f37af665df229fb4821e477f6998864273 status: finalizing  ## Sign the transaction ### Make witness For signing the transaction, you need: • the hash of the genesis block of the network you are connected to. • the private key associated with the input address (the one that's in the utxos). • the hash of the transaction, that can be retrieved in two ways: 1. sign_data_hash value from jcli transaction info --staging tx or 2. jcli transaction data-for-witness --staging tx The genesis' hash is needed for ensuring that the transaction cannot be re-used in another blockchain and for security concerns on offline transaction signing, as we are signing the transaction for the specific blockchain started by this block0 hash. First we need to get the hash of the transaction we are going to sign. jcli transaction data-for-witness --staging tx  You should see something like this (the value may be different since it depends on the input/output data) 0df39a87d3f18a188b40ba8c203f85f37af665df229fb4821e477f6998864273  The following command takes the private key in the key.prv file and creates a witness in a file named witness in the current directory. jcli transaction make-witness --genesis-block-hash abcdef987654321... --type utxo 0df39a87d3f18a188b40ba8c203f85f37af665df229fb4821e477f6998864273 witness key.prv  #### Account input When using an account as input, the command takes account as the type and an additional parameter: --account-spending-counter, that should be increased every time the account is used as input. e.g. jcli transaction make-witness --genesis-block-hash abcdef987654321... --type account --account-spending-counter 0 0df39a87d3f18a188b40ba8c203f85f37af665df229fb4821e477f6998864273 witness key.prv  ### Add witness jcli transaction add-witness witness --staging tx  ## Send the transaction jcli transaction seal --staging tx  jcli transaction to-message --staging tx > txmsg  Send it using the rest api jcli rest v0 message post -f txmsg --host http://127.0.0.1:8443/api  You should get some data back referring to the TransactionID (also known as FragmentID) d6ef0b2148a51ed64531efc17978a527fd2d2584da1e344a35ad12bf5460a7e2  ## Checking if the transaction was accepted You can check if the transaction was accepted by checking the node logs, for example, if the transaction is accepted jcli rest v0 message logs -h http://127.0.0.1:8443/api --- - fragment_id: d6ef0b2148a51ed64531efc17978a527fd2d2584da1e344a35ad12bf5460a7e2 last_updated_at: "2019-06-11T15:38:17.070162114Z" received_at: "2019-06-11T15:37:09.469101162Z" received_from: Rest status: InABlock: date: "4.707" block: "d9040ca57e513a36ecd3bb54207dfcd10682200929cad6ada46b521417964174"  Where the InABlock status means that the transaction was accepted in the block with date "4.707" and for block d9040ca57e513a36ecd3bb54207dfcd10682200929cad6ada46b521417964174. The status here could also be: Pending: if the transaction is received and is pending being added in the blockchain (or rejected). or Rejected: with an attached message of the reason the transaction was rejected. # Certificate Tooling for offline transaction creation ## Building stake pool registration certificate Builds a stake pool registration certificate. jcli certificate new stake-pool-registration \ --vrf-key <vrf-public-key> \ --kes-key <kes-public-key> \ --start-validity <seconds-since-start> \ --management-threshold <THRESHOLD> \ --owner <owner-public-key> \ [--operator <operator-public-key>] \ [<output-file>]  Where: • --operator <operator-public-key> - optional, public key of the operator(s) of the pool. • output-file - optional, write the output to the given file or print it to the standard output if not defined ## Building stake pool delegation certificate Builds a stake pool delegation certificate. jcli certificate new stake-delegation <STAKE_KEY> <STAKE_POOL_IDS> [--output <output-file>]  Where: • -o, --output <output-file> - optional, write the output to the given file or print it to the standard output if not defined • <STAKE_KEY> - the public key used in the stake key registration • <STAKE_POOL_IDS>... - hex-encoded stake pool IDs and their numeric weights in format "pool_id:weight". If weight is not provided, it defaults to 1. # Genesis Tooling for working with a genesis file # Usage jcli genesis [subcommand]  ## Subcommands • decode: Print the YAML file corresponding to an encoded genesis block. • encode: Create the genesis block of the blockchain from a given yaml file. • hash: Print the block hash of the genesis • init: Create a default Genesis file with appropriate documentation to help creating the YAML file • help ## Examples ### Encode a genesis file jcli genesis encode --input genesis.yaml --output block-0.bin  or equivantely cat genesis.yaml | jcli genesis encode > block-0.bin  ### Get the hash of an encoded genesis file jcli genesis hash --input block-0.bin  # REST Jormungandr comes with a CLI client for manual communication with nodes over HTTP. ## Conventions Many CLI commands have common arguments: • -h <addr> or --host <addr> - Node API address. Must always have http:// or https:// prefix. E.g. -h http://127.0.0.1, --host https://node.com:8443/cardano/api • --debug - Print additional debug information to stderr. The output format is intentionally undocumented and unstable • --output-format <format> - Format of output data. Possible values: json, yaml, default yaml. Any other value is treated as a custom format using values from output data structure. Syntax is Go text template: https://golang.org/pkg/text/template/. ## Node stats Fetches node stats jcli rest v0 node stats get <options>  The options are YAML printed on success --- # Number of blocks received by node blockRecvCnt: 1102 # Size in bytes of all transactions in last block lastBlockContentSize: 484 # The Epoch and slot Number of the block (optional) lastBlockDate: "20.29" # Sum of all fee values in all transactions in last block lastBlockFees: 534 # The block hash, it's unique identifier in the blockchain (optional) lastBlockHash: b9597b45a402451540e6aabb58f2ee4d65c67953b338e04c52c00aa0886bd1f0 # The block number, in order, since the block0 (optional) lastBlockHeight: 202901 # Sum of all input values in all transactions in last block lastBlockSum: 51604 # The time slot of the tip block lastBlockTime: "2020-01-30T22:37:46+00:00" # Number of transactions in last block lastBlockTx: 2 # The time at which we received the last block, not necessarily the current tip block (optional) lastReceivedBlockTime: "2020-01-30T22:37:59+00:00" # 24 bytes encoded in hexadecimal Node ID nodeId: "ad24537cb009bedaebae3d247fecee9e14c57fe942e9bb0d" # Number of nodes that are available for p2p discovery and events propagation peerAvailableCnt: 321 # Number of nodes that have been quarantined by our node peerQuarantinedCnt: 123 # Total number of nodes peerTotalCnt: 444 # Number of nodes that are connected to ours but that are not publicly reachable peerUnreachableCnt: 0 # State of the node state: Running # Number of transactions received by node txRecvCnt: 5440 # Node uptime in seconds uptime: 20032 # Node app version version: jormungandr 0.8.9-30d20d2e  ## Get UTxO Fetches UTxO details jcli rest v0 utxo <fragment-id> <output-index> get <options>  - hex-encoded ID of the transaction fragment - index of the transaction output The options are YAML printed on success --- # UTxO owner address address: ca1svs0mwkfky9htpam576mc93mee5709khre8dgnqslj6y3p5f77s5gpgv02w # UTxO value value: 10000  ## Post transaction Posts a signed, hex-encoded transaction jcli rest v0 message post <options>  The options are • -h <node_addr> - see conventions • --debug - see conventions • -f --file <file_path> - File containing hex-encoded transaction. If not provided, transaction will be read from stdin. Fragment Id is printed on success (which can help finding transaction status using get message log command) 50f21ac6bd3f57f231c4bf9c5fff7c45e2529c4dffed68f92410dbf7647541f1  ## Get message log Get the node's logs on the message pool. This will provide information on pending transaction, rejected transaction and or when a transaction has been added in a block jcli rest v0 message logs <options>  The options are YAML printed on success --- - fragment_id: 7db6f91f3c92c0aef7b3dd497e9ea275229d2ab4dba6a1b30ce6b32db9c9c3b2 # hex-encoded fragment ID last_updated_at: 2019-06-02T16:20:26.201000000Z # RFC3339 timestamp of last fragment status change received_at: 2019-06-02T16:20:26.201000000Z # RFC3339 timestamp of fragment receivement received_from: Network, # how fragment was received status: Pending, # fragment status  received_from can be one of: received_from: Rest # fragment was received from node's REST API  received_from: Network # fragment was received from the network  status can be one of: status: Pending # fragment is pending  status: Rejected: # fragment was rejected reason: reason of rejection # cause  status: # fragment was included in a block InABlock: date: "6637.3" # block epoch and slot ID formed as <epoch>.<slot_id> block: "d9040ca57e513a36ecd3bb54207dfcd10682200929cad6ada46b521417964174"  ## Blockchain tip Retrieves a hex-encoded ID of the blockchain tip jcli rest v0 tip get <options>  The options are ## Get block Retrieves a hex-encoded block with given ID jcli rest v0 block <block_id> get <options>  <block_id> - hex-encoded block ID The options are ## Get next block ID Retrieves a list of hex-encoded IDs of descendants of block with given ID. Every list element is in separate line. The IDs are sorted from closest to farthest. jcli rest v0 block <block_id> next-id get <options>  <block_id> - hex-encoded block ID The options are • -h <node_addr> - see conventions • --debug - see conventions • -c --count - Maximum number of IDs, must be between 1 and 100, default 1 ## Get account state Get account state jcli rest v0 account get <account-id> <options>  - ID of an account, bech32-encoded The options are YAML printed on success --- counter: 1 delegation: c780f14f9782770014d8bcd514b1bc664653d15f73a7158254730c6e1aa9f356 value: 990  • value is the current balance of the account; • counter is the number of transactions performed using this account this is useful to know when signing new transactions; • delegation is the Stake Pool Identifier the account is delegating to. it is possible this value is not set if there is no delegation certificate sent associated to this account. ## Node settings Fetches node settings jcli rest v0 settings get <options>  The options are YAML printed on success --- block0Hash: 8d94ecfcc9a566f492e6335858db645691f628b012bed4ac2b1338b5690355a7 # block 0 hash of block0Time: "2019-07-09T12:32:51+00:00" # block 0 creation time of blockContentMaxSize: 102400 # the block content's max size in bytes consensusVersion: bft # currently used consensus currSlotStartTime: "2019-07-09T12:55:11+00:00" # current slot start time epochStabilityDepth: 102400 # the depth, number of blocks, to which we consider the blockchain to be stable and prevent rollback beyond that depth fees: # transaction fee configuration certificate: 4 # fee per certificate coefficient: 1 # fee per every input and output constant: 2 # fee per transaction per_certificate_fees: # fee per certificate operations, all zero if this object absent (optional) certificate_pool_registration: 5 # fee per pool registration, zero if absent (optional) certificate_stake_delegation: 15 # fee per stake delegation, zero if absent (optional) certificate_owner_stake_delegation: 2 # fee per pool owner stake delegation, zero if absent (optional) rewardParams: # parameters for rewards calculation compoundingRatio: # speed at which reward is reduced. Expressed as numerator/denominator denominator: 1024 numerator: 1 compoundingType: Linear # reward reduction algorithm. Possible values: "Linear" and "Halvening" epochRate: 100 # number of epochs between reward reductions epochStart: 0 # epoch when rewarding starts initialValue: 10000 # initial reward slotDuration: 5 # slot duration in seconds slotsPerEpoch: 720 # number of slots per epoch treasuryTax: # tax from reward that goes to pot fixed: 5 # what get subtracted as fixed value ratio: # ratio of tax after fixed amount is subtracted. Expressed as numerator/denominator numerator: 1 denominator: 10000 max: 100 # limit of tax (optional)  ## Node shutdown Node shutdown jcli rest v0 shutdown get <options>  The options are ## Get leaders Fetches list of leader IDs jcli rest v0 leaders get <options>  The options are YAML printed on success --- - 1 # list of leader IDs - 2  ## Register leader Register new leader and get its ID jcli rest v0 leaders post <options>  The options are • -h <node_addr> - see conventions • --debug - see conventions • --output-format - see conventions -f, --file - File containing YAML with leader secret. It must have the same format as secret YAML passed to Jormungandr as --secret. If not provided, YAML will be read from stdin. On success created leader ID is printed 3  ## Delete leader Delete leader with given ID jcli rest v0 leaders delete <id> <options>  - ID of deleted leader The options are ## Get leadership logs Fetches leadership logs jcli rest v0 leaders logs get <options>  The options are YAML printed on success --- - created_at_time: "2019-08-19T12:25:00.417263555+00:00" enclave_leader_id: 1 finished_at_time: "2019-08-19T23:19:05.010113333+00:00" scheduled_at_date: "0.3923" scheduled_at_time: "2019-08-19T23:18:35+00:00" wake_at_time: "2019-08-19T23:18:35.001254555+00:00" status: Block: chain_length: 201018, block: "d9040ca57e513a36ecd3bb54207dfcd10682200929cad6ada46b521417964174"  Different value for the status: # meaning the action is still pending to happen status: Pending  # meaning the action successfully create the given block with the given hash status: Block: chain_length: 201018, block: "d9040ca57e513a36ecd3bb54207dfcd10682200929cad6ada46b521417964174"  # meaning the event has failed for some reasons status: Rejected: reason: "Missed the deadline to compute the schedule"  ## Get stake pools Fetches list of stake pool IDs jcli rest v0 stake-pools get <options>  The options are YAML printed on success --- - 5cf03f333f37eb7b987dbc9017b8a928287a3d77d086cd93cd9ad05bcba7e60f # list of stake pool IDs - 3815602c096fcbb91072f419c296c3dfe1f730e0f446a9bd2553145688e75615  ## Get stake distribution Fetches stake information jcli rest v0 stake get <options>  The options are YAML printed on success --- epoch: 228 # Epoch of last block stake: dangling: 0 # Total value stored in accounts, but assigned to nonexistent pools pools: - - 5cf03f333f37eb7b987dbc9017b8a928287a3d77d086cd93cd9ad05bcba7e60f # stake pool ID - 1000000000000 # staked value - - 3815602c096fcbb91072f419c296c3dfe1f730e0f446a9bd2553145688e75615 # stake pool ID - 1000000000000 # staked value unassigned: 0 # Total value stored in accounts, but not assigned to any pool  ## Network stats Fetches network stats jcli rest v0 network stats get <options>  The options are YAML printed on success --- - # node address (optional) addr: "3.124.55.91:3000" # hex-encoded node ID nodeId: 0102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f20 # timestamp of when the connection was established establishedAt: "2019-10-14T06:24:12.010231281+00:00" # timestamp of last time block was received from node if ever (optional) lastBlockReceived: "2019-10-14T00:45:57.419496113+00:00" # timestamp of last time fragment was received from node if ever (optional) lastFragmentReceived: "2019-10-14T00:45:58.419496150+00:00" # timestamp of last time gossip was received from node if ever (optional) lastGossipReceived: "2019-10-14T00:45:59.419496188+00:00"  ## Get stake pool details Fetches stake pool details jcli rest v0 stake-pool get <pool-id> <options>  - hex-encoded pool ID The options are YAML printed on success --- tax: # pool reward fixed: 5 # what get subtracted as fixed value ratio: # ratio of tax after fixed amount is subtracted. Expressed as numerator/denominator numerator: 1 denominator: 10000 max: 100 # limit of tax (optional) total_stake: 2000000000000 # total stake pool value # bech32-encoded stake pool KES key kesPublicKey: kes25519-12-pk1q7susucqwje0lpetqzjgzncgcrjzx7e2guh900qszdjskkeyqpusf3p39r # bech32-encoded stake pool VRF key vrfPublicKey: vrf_pk1rcm4qm3q9dtwq22x9a4avnan7a3k987zvepuxwekzj3uyu6a8v0s6sdy0l  # Staking with jormungandr Here we will describe how to: • delegate your stake to a stake pool so that you can participate to the consensus and maybe collect rewards for that; If you are a user of the blockchain then you will certainly not need to look at the last section about how to register a stake pool. # Delegating your stake ## how to create the delegation certificate Stake is concentrated in accounts, and you will need account public key to delegate its associated stake. ### for own account You will need: • the Stake Pool ID: an hexadecimal string identifying the stake pool you want to delegate your stake to. jcli certificate new owner-stake-delegation STAKE_POOL_ID > stake_delegation.cert  Note that the certificate is in blaco, there's no account key used for its creation. In order for delegation to work it must be submitted to a node inside a very specific transaction: • Transaction must have exactly 1 input • The input must be from account • The input value must be strictly equal to fee of the transaction • Transaction must have 0 outputs The account used for input will have its stake delegated to the stake pool ### for any account You will need: • account public key: a bech32 string of a public key • the Stake Pool ID: an hexadecimal string identifying the stake pool you want to delegate your stake to. jcli certificate new stake-delegation ACCOUNT_PUBLIC_KEY STAKE_POOL_ID --output stake_delegation.cert  ## submitting to a node The jcli transaction add-certificate command should be used to add a certificate before finalizing the transaction. For example:  ... jcli transaction add-certificate$(cat stake_delegation.cert) --staging tx
jcli transaction finalize CHANGE_ADDRESS --fee-constant 5 --fee-coefficient 2 --fee-certificate 2 --staging tx

...
jcli transaction seal --staging tx
jcli transaction auth --key account_key.prv --staging tx
...



The --fee-certificate flag indicates the cost of adding a certificate, used for computing the fees, it can be omitted if it is zero.

See here for more documentation on transaction creation.

## how to sign your delegation certificate

This procedure is needed only for certificates that are to be included in the genesis config file.

We need to make sure that the owner of the account is authorizing this delegation to happens, and for that we need a cryptographic signature.

We will need the account secret key to create a signature

jcli certificate sign --certificate stake_delegation.cert --key account_key.prv --output stake_delegation.signedcert


The content of stake_delegation.signedcert will be something like:

signedcert1q9uxkxptz3zx7akmugkmt4ecjjd3nmzween2qfr5enhzkt37tdt4uqt0j0039z5048mu9ayv3ujep5sl28q2cpdnx9fkvpq30lmjrrgtmqqctzczvu6e3v65m40n40c3y2pnu4vhd888dygkrtnfm0ts92fe50jy0h0ugh6wlvgy4xvr3lz4uuqzg2xgu6vv8tr24jrwhg0l09klp5wvwzl5


and can now be added in the genesis config file.

# registering stake pool

There are multiple components to be aware of when running a stake pool:

• your NodeId: it is the identifier within the blockchain protocol (wallet will delegate to your stake pool via this NodeId);
• your VRF key pairs: this is the cryptographic material we will use to participate to the leader election;
• your KES key pairs: this is the cryptographic material we will use to sign the block with.
• the stake pool Tax: the value the stake pool will take from the total reward due to the stake pool before distributing rewards (if any left) to the delegators.

So in order to start your stake pool you will need to generate these objects.

## The primitives

### VRF key pair

To generate your VRF Key pairs, we will utilise jcli as described here:

jcli key generate --type=Curve25519_2HashDH > stake_pool_vrf.prv


stake_pool_vrf.prv file now contains the VRF private key.

cat stake_pool_vrf.prv | jcli key to-public > stake_pool_vrf.pub


### KES key pair

Similar to above:

jcli key generate --type=SumEd25519_12 > stake_pool_kes.prv


stake_pool_kes.prv now contains your KES private key

cat stake_pool_kes.prv | jcli key to-public > stake_pool_kes.pub


## Choosing the Tax parameters

There are 3 values you can set to configure the stake pool's Tax:

• tax-fixed: this is the fixed cut the stake pool will take from the total reward due to the stake pool;
• tax-ratio: this is the percentage of the remaining value that will be taken from the total due
• tax-limit: a value that can be set to limit the pool's Tax.

All of these values are optionals, if not set, they will be set to 0. This will mean no tax for the stake pool: rewards are all distributed to the delegators.

### So how does this works

Let say you control a stake pool SP, with 2 owners (O1 and O2). During epoch 1, SP has created some blocks and is entitled to receive 10_000.

Before distributing the 10_000 among the delegators, SP will take its Tax.

1. we extract the tax-fixed. If this is greater or equal to the total (10_000) then we stop there, there is no more rewards to distribute.
2. with what remains the SP extracts its tax-ratio and checks the tax from the ratio is not greater than tax-limit.
3. the total SP rewards will then be distributed equally to the owners (O1 and O2). Note that if the --reward-account is set, the rewards for SP are then distributed to that account and nothing to O1 and O2.

For example:

totalfixedratiolimitSPO1O2for delegators
takes 100%1000001/1010000500050000
fixed of 10001000010000/1010005005009000
fixed + 10%200010001/1001100550550900
fixed + 20% up to 150200010001/51501150575575850

### The options to set

--tax-limit <TAX_LIMIT>
The maximum tax value the stake pool will take.

This will set the maximum the stake pool value will reserve for themselves from the --tax-ratio (excluding --tax-fixed).
--tax-ratio <TAX_RATIO>
The percentage take of the stake pool.

Once the tax-fixed has been take, this is the percentage the stake pool will take for themselves. [default: 0/1]
--tax-fixed <TAX_VALUE>
set the fixed value tax the stake pool will reserve from the reward

For example, a stake pool may set this value to cover their fixed operation costs. [default: 0]


## creating a stake pool certificate

The certificate is what will be sent to the blockchain in order to register yourself to the other participants of the blockchain that you are a stake pool too.

jcli certificate new stake-pool-registration \
--kes-key $(cat stake_pool_kes.pub) \ --vrf-key$(cat stake_pool_vrf.pub) \
--start-validity 0 \
--management-threshold 1 \
--tax-fixed 1000000 \
--tax-limit 1000000000 \
--tax-ratio "1/10" \
--owner $(cat owner_key.pub) > stake_pool.cert  The --operator flag is optional. And now you can retrieve your stake pool id (NodeId): cat stake_pool.cert | jcli certificate get-stake-pool-id | tee stake_pool.id ea830e5d9647af89a5e9a4d4089e6e855891a533316adf4a42b7bf1372389b74  ## submitting to a node The jcli transaction add-certificate command should be used to add a certificate before finalizing the transaction. For example: ... jcli transaction add-certificate$(cat stake_pool.cert) --staging tx
jcli transaction finalize CHANGE_ADDRESS --fee-constant 5 --fee-coefficient 2 --fee-certificate 2 --staging tx

...
jcli transaction seal --staging tx
jcli transaction auth --key owner_key.prv --staging tx
...


The --fee-certificate flag indicates the cost of adding a certificate, used for computing the fees, it can be omitted if it is zero.

See here for more documentation on transaction creation.

At the moment, it only covers details on how to create your own blockchain genesis configuration, but in normal case, the blockchain configuration should be available with the specific blockchain system.

# genesis file

The genesis file is the file that allows you to create a new blockchain from block 0. It lays out the different parameter of your blockchain: the initial utxo, the start time, the slot duration time, etc...

Example of a BFT genesis file with an initial address UTxO and an account UTxO. More info regarding starting a BFT blockchain here and regarding addresses there. You could also find information regarding the jcli genesis tooling.

You can generate a documented pre-generated genesis file:

jcli genesis init


For example your genesis file may look like:

# The Blockchain Configuration defines the settings of the blockchain.
blockchain_configuration:

# The block0-date defines the date the blockchain starts
# expected value in seconds since UNIX_EPOCH
#
# By default the value will be the current date and time. Or you can
# add a specific time by entering the number of seconds since UNIX
# Epoch
block0_date: {default_block0_date}

# This is the type of discrimination of the blockchain
# of this blockchain is meant for production then
#
# otherwise leave as this
discrimination: {discrimination}

# The initial consensus version:
#
# * BFT consensus: bft
# * Genesis Praos consensus: genesis
block0_consensus: bft

# Number of slots in each epoch.
#
# default value is {default_slots_per_epoch}
slots_per_epoch: {default_slots_per_epoch}

# The slot duration, in seconds, is the time between the creation
# of 2 blocks
#
# default value is {default_slot_duration}
slot_duration: {default_slot_duration}

# set the block content max size
#
# This is the size, in bytes, of all the contents of the block (excluding the
#
# default value is {default_block_content_max_size}
block_content_max_size: {default_block_content_max_size}

# A list of Ed25519 PublicKey that represents the
# BFT leaders encoded as bech32. The order in the list matters.

# Epoch stability depth
#
# Optional: default value {default_epoch_stability_depth}
epoch_stability_depth: {default_epoch_stability_depth}

# Genesis praos active slot coefficient
# Determines minimum stake required to try becoming slot leader, must be in range (0,1]
#
# default value: {default_consensus_genesis_praos_active_slot_coeff}
consensus_genesis_praos_active_slot_coeff: {default_consensus_genesis_praos_active_slot_coeff}

# The fee calculations settings
#
# total fees: constant + (num_inputs + num_outputs) * coefficient [+ certificate]
linear_fees:
# this is the minimum value to pay for every transaction
constant: 2
# the additional fee to pay for every inputs and outputs
coefficient: 1
# the additional fee to pay if the transaction embeds a certificate
certificate: 4
# (optional) fees for different types of certificates, to override the one
# given in certificate just above
#
# here: all certificate fees are set to 4 except for pool registration
# and stake delegation which are respectively 5 and 2.
per_certificate_fees:
# (optional) if not specified, the pool registration certificate fee will be
# the one set by linear_fees.certificate
certificate_pool_registration: 5
# (optional) if not specified, the delegation certificate fee will be
# the one set by linear_fees.certificate
certificate_stake_delegation: 2
# (optional) if not specified, the owner delegation certificate fee will be
# the one set by linear_fees.certificate. Uncomment to set the owner stake
# delegation to 1 instead of default 4:
# certificate_owner_stake_delegation: 1

# The speed to update the KES Key in seconds
#
# default value: {default_kes_update_speed}
kes_update_speed: {default_kes_update_speed}

# Set where to send the fees generated by transactions activity.
#
# by default it is send to the "rewards" pot of the epoch which is then
# distributed to the different stake pools who created blocks that given
# epoch.
#
# It is possible to send all the generated fees to the "treasury".
#
# Optional, default is "rewards"
# fees_go_to: "rewards"

# initial value the treasury will start with, if not set the treasury
# starts at 0
treasury: 1000000000000

# set the treasury parameters, this is the tax type, just as in stake pool
# registration certificate parameters.
#
# When distributing the rewards, the treasury will be first serve as per
# the incentive specification document
#
# if not set, the treasury will not grow
treasury_parameters:
# the fix value the treasury will take from the total reward pot of the epoch
fixed: 1000
# the extra percentage the the treasury will take from the reward pot of the epoch
ratio: "1/10"
# It is possible to add a max bound to the total value the treasury takes
# at each reward distribution. For example, one could cap the treasury tax
# to 10000. Uncomment the following line to apply a max limit:
# max_limit: 10000

# Set the total reward supply available for monetary creation
#
# if not set there is no monetary creation
# once emptied, there is no more monetary creation
total_reward_supply: 100000000000000

# set the reward supply consumption. These parameters will define how the
# total_reward_supply is consumed for the stake pool reward
#
# There's fundamentally many potential choices for how rewards are contributed back, and here's two potential valid examples:
#
# Linear formula: constant - ratio * (#epoch after epoch_start / epoch_rate)
# Halving formula: constant * ratio ^ (#epoch after epoch_start / epoch_rate)
#
reward_parameters:
halving: # or use "linear" for the linear formula
# In the linear formula, it represents the starting point of the contribution
# at #epoch=0, whereas in halving formula is used as starting constant for
# the calculation.
constant: 100

# In the halving formula, an effective value between 0.0 to 1.0 indicates a
# reducing contribution, whereas above 1.0 it indicate an acceleration of contribution.
#
# However in linear formula the meaning is just a scaling factor for the epoch zone
# (current_epoch - start_epoch / epoch_rate). Further requirement is that this ratio
# is expressed in fractional form (e.g. 1/2), which allow calculation in integer form.
ratio: "13/19"

# indicates when this contribution start. note that if the epoch is not
# the same or after the epoch_start, the overall contribution is zero.
epoch_start: 1

# the rate at which the contribution is tweaked related to epoch.
epoch_rate: 3

# set some reward constraints and limits
#
# this value is optional, the default is no constraints at all. The settings
# are commented below:
#
#reward_constraints:
#  # limit the epoch total reward drawing limit to a portion of the total
#  # active stake of the system.
#  #
#  # for example, if set to 10%, the reward drawn will be bounded by the
#  # 10% of the total active stake.
#  #
#  # this value is optional, the default is no reward drawing limit
#  reward_drawing_limit_max: "10/100"
#
#  # settings to incentivize the numbers of stake pool to be registered
#  # on the blockchain.
#  #
#  # These settings does not prevent more stake pool to be added. For example
#  # if there is already 1000 stake pools, someone can still register a new
#  # stake pool and affect the rewards of everyone else too.
#  #
#  # if the threshold is reached, the pool doesn't really have incentive to
#  # create more blocks than 1 / set-value-of-pools % of stake.
#  #
#  # this value is optional, the default is no pool participation capping
#  pool_participation_capping:
#    min: 300
#    max: 1000

# Initial state of the ledger. Each item is applied in order of this list
initial:
# Initial deposits present in the blockchain
- fund:
value: 10000

# Initial certificates
#- cert: ..

# Initial deposits present in the blockchain
#- legacy_fund:
#      value: 123


There are multiple parts in the genesis file:

• blockchain_configuration: this is a list of configuration parameters of the blockchain, some of which can be changed later via the update protocol;
• initial: list of steps to create initial state of ledger

## blockchain_configuration options

optionformatdescription
block0_datenumberthe official start time of the blockchain, in seconds since UNIX EPOCH
discriminationstringproduction or test
block0_consensusstringbft
slot_durationnumberthe number of seconds between the creation of 2 blocks
epoch_stability_depthnumberallowed size of a fork (in number of block)
consensus_leader_idsarraythe list of the BFT leader at the beginning of the blockchain
block_content_max_sizenumberthe maximum size of the block content, in bytes.
linear_feesobjectlinear fee settings, set the fee for transaction and certificate publishing
consensus_genesis_praos_active_slot_coeffnumbergenesis praos active slot coefficient. Determines minimum stake required to try becoming slot leader, must be in range (0,1]
kes_update_speednumberthe speed to update the KES Key in seconds
slots_per_epochnumbernumber of slots in each epoch

## initial options

Each entry can be one of 3 variants:

variantformatdescription
fundsequenceinitial deposits present in the blockchain (up to 255 outputs per entry)
certstringinitial certificate
legacy_fundsequencesame as fund, but with legacy Cardano address format

Example:

initial:
- fund:
value: 10000
value: 20000
value: 30000
- cert: <certificate>
- legacy_fund:
value: 123
- fund:
value: 1001


### fund and legacy_fund format

variantformatdescription
addressstringcan be a single address or an account address
valuenumberassigned value

legacy_fund differs only in address format, which is legacy Cardano

# starting a bft node

BFT stands for the Byzantine Fault Tolerant (read the paper).

Jormungandr allows you to start a BFT blockchain fairly easily. The main downside is that it is centralized, only a handful of nodes will ever have the right to create blocks.

## How does it work

It is fairly simple. A given number of Nodes (N) will generate a key pairs of type Ed25519 (see JCLI's Keys).

They all share the public key and add them in the genesis.yaml file. It is the source of truth, the file that will generate the first block of the blockchain: the Block 0.

Then, only by one after the other, each Node will be allowed to create a block. Utilising a Round Robin algorithm.

## Example of genesis file

blockchain_configuration:
block0_date: 1550822014
discrimination: test
block0_consensus: bft
slots_per_epoch: 5
slot_duration: 15
epoch_stability_depth: 10
- ed25519e_pk13talprd9grgaqzs42mkm0x2xek5wf9mdf0eefdy8a6dk5grka2gstrp3en
consensus_genesis_praos_active_slot_coeff: 0.22
linear_fees:
constant: 2
coefficient: 1
certificate: 4
kes_update_speed: 43200
initial:
- fund:
value: 10000
- cert: cert1qgqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq0p5avfqqmgurpe7s9k7933q0wj420jl5xqvx8lywcu5jcr7fwqa9qmdn93q4nm7c4fsay3mzeqgq3c0slnut9kns08yn2qn80famup7nvgtfuyszqzqrd4lxlt5ylplfu76p8f6ks0ggprzatp2c8rn6ev3hn9dgr38tzful4h0udlwa0536vyrrug7af9ujmrr869afs0yw9gj5x7z24l8sps3zzcmv
- legacy_fund:
value: 123


In order to start your blockchain in BFT mode you need to be sure that:

• consensus_leader_ids is non empty;

## Creating the block 0

jcli genesis encode --input genesis.yaml --output block-0.bin


This command will create (or replace) the Block 0 of the blockchain from the given genesis configuration file (genesis.yaml).

## Starting the node

Now that the blockchain is initialized, you need to start your node.

Write you private key in a file on your HD:

$cat node_secret.yaml bft: signing_key: ed25519_sk1hpvne...  Configure your Node (config.yml) and run the following command: $ jormungandr --genesis-block block-0.bin \
--config example.config \
--secret node_secret.yaml


It's possible to use the flag --secret multiple times to run a node with multiple leaders.

## Step by step to start the BFT node

1. Generate initial config jcli genesis init > genesis.yaml
2. Generate secret key, e.g.  jcli key generate --type=Ed25519 > key.prv
3. Put secret key in a file, e.g. node_secret.yaml as follows:
bft:
signing_key: ed25519_sk1kppercsk06k03yk4qgea....

1. Generate public key out of previously generated key  cat key.prv | jcli key to-public
2. Put generated public key as in genesis.yaml under consensus_leader_ids:
3. Generate block = jcli genesis encode --input genesis.yaml --output block-0.bin
4. Create config file and store it on your HD as node.config e.g. ->
---
log:
level: trace
format: json
rest:
listen: "127.0.0.1:8607"
p2p:
topics_of_interest:
messages: low
blocks: normal

1. Start Jörmungandr node :
jormungandr --genesis-block block-0.bin --config node.config --secret node_secret.yaml


# Script

Additionally, there is a script here that can be used to bootstrap a test node with bft consensus protocol.

# starting a genesis blockchain

When starting a genesis praos blockchain there is an element to take into consideration while constructing the block 0: the stake distribution.

In the context of Genesis/Praos the network is fully decentralized and it is necessary to think ahead about initial stake pools and to make sure there is stake delegated to these stake pools.

In your genesis yaml file, make sure to set the following values to the appropriate values/desired values:

# The Blockchain Configuration defines the settings of the blockchain.
blockchain_configuration:
block0_consensus: genesis_praos
consensus_genesis_praos_active_slot_coeff: 0.1
kes_update_speed: 43200 # 12hours


block0_consensus set to genesis_praos means you want to start a blockchain with genesis praos as the consensus layer.

consensus_genesis_praos_active_slot_coeff determines minimum stake required to try becoming slot leader, must be in range 0 exclusive and 1 inclusive.

## The initial certificates

In the initial_certs field you will set the initial certificate. This is important to declare the stake pool and delegate stake to them. Otherwise no block will be ever created.

Remember that in this array the order matters:

In order to delegate your stake, you need a stake pool to already exist, so the stake pool registration certificate should go first.

### Stake pool registration

Now you can register a stake pool. Follow the instruction in registering stake pool guide.

The owner key (the key you sign the stake pool registration certificate) is the secret key associated to a previously registered stake key.

### Delegating stake

Now that there is both your stake key and there are stake pools available in the block0 you need to delegate to one of the stake pool. Follow the instruction in delegating stake.

jcli address single $(cat wallet_key.pub)$(cat stake_key.pub)
ta1sjx4j3jwel94g0cgwzq9au7h6m8f5q3qnyh0gfnryl3xan6qnmjse3k2uv062mzj34eacjnxthxqv8fvdcn6f4xhxwa7ms729ak3gsl4qrq2mm


For example, the most minimal setting you may have is:

initial_certs:
# register a stake pool (P), owner of the stake pool is the stake key (K)
- cert1qsqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq0p5avfqp9tzusr26chayeddkkmdlap6tl23ceca8unsghc22tap8clhrzslkehdycufa4ywvqvs4u36zctw4ydtg7xagprfgz0vuujh3lgtxgfszqzqj4xk4sxxyg392p5nqz8s7ev5wna7eqz7ycsuas05mrupmdsfk0fqqudanew6c0nckf5tsp0lgnk8e8j0dpnxvjk2usn52vs8umr3qrccegxaz

# delegate stake associated to stake key (K) to stake pool (P)
- cert1q0rv4ccl54k99rtnm39xvhwvqcwjcm385n2dwvamahpu5tmdz3plt65rpewev3a03xj7nfx5pz0xap2cjxjnxvt2ma9y9dalzder3xm5qyqyq0lx05ggrws0ghuffqrg7scqzdsd665v4m7087eam5zvw4f26v2tsea3ujrxly243sgqkn42uttk5juvq78ajvfx9ttcmj05lfuwtq9qhdxzr0

initial_funds:
value: 10000
# address delegating to stake key (K)
value: 1000000


### Starting the node

Now, for starting the node and be able to generate new blocks, you have to put your pool's private keys and id in a file and start the node with the --secret filename parameter.

For example, if you follow the examples of the registering stake pool guide

You could create a file called poolsecret.yaml with the following content.

genesis:
sig_key: Content of stake_pool_kes.prv file
vrf_key: Content of stake_pool_vrf.prv file
node_id: Content of stake_pool.id file


And you could start the node with this command

jormungandr --genesis-block block-0.bin --config config.yaml --secret poolsecret.yaml


# Test script

There is a script here that can be used to bootstrap a test node with a pre-set faucet and stake pool and can be used as an example.